last sync: 2024-Mar-01 17:50:27 UTC

SQL servers should use customer-managed keys to encrypt data at rest

Azure BuiltIn Policy definition

Source Azure Portal
Display name SQL servers should use customer-managed keys to encrypt data at rest
Id 0a370ff3-6cab-4e85-8995-295fd854c5b8
Version 2.0.1
Details on versioning
Category SQL
Microsoft Learn
Description Implementing Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) with your own key provides increased transparency and control over the TDE Protector, increased security with an HSM-backed external service, and promotion of separation of duties. This recommendation applies to organizations with a related compliance requirement.
Mode All
Type BuiltIn
Preview False
Deprecated False
Effect Default
Audit
Allowed
Audit, Deny, Disabled
RBAC role(s) none
Rule aliases IF (2)
Alias Namespace ResourceType DefaultPath Modifiable
Microsoft.Sql/servers/encryptionProtector/serverKeyType Microsoft.Sql servers/encryptionProtector properties.serverKeyType false
Microsoft.Sql/servers/keyid Microsoft.Sql servers properties.keyId false
Rule resource types IF (2)
Microsoft.Sql/servers
Microsoft.Sql/servers/encryptionProtector
Compliance
The following 25 compliance controls are associated with this Policy definition 'SQL servers should use customer-managed keys to encrypt data at rest' (0a370ff3-6cab-4e85-8995-295fd854c5b8)
Control Domain Control Name MetadataId Category Title Owner Requirements Description Info Policy#
Azure_Security_Benchmark_v1.0 4.8 Azure_Security_Benchmark_v1.0_4.8 Azure Security Benchmark 4.8 Data Protection Encrypt sensitive information at rest Customer Use encryption at rest on all Azure resources. Microsoft recommends allowing Azure to manage your encryption keys, however there is the option for you to manage your own keys in some instances. Understand encryption at rest in Azure: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/security/fundamentals/encryption-atrest How to configure customer managed encryption keys: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/storage/common/storage-encryption-keys-portal n/a link 7
Azure_Security_Benchmark_v2.0 DP-5 Azure_Security_Benchmark_v2.0_DP-5 Azure Security Benchmark DP-5 Data Protection Encrypt sensitive data at rest Shared To complement access controls, data at rest should be protected against ‘out of band’ attacks (such as accessing underlying storage) using encryption. This helps ensure that attackers cannot easily read or modify the data. Azure provides encryption for data at rest by default. For highly sensitive data, you have options to implement additional encryption at rest on all Azure resources where available. Azure manages your encryption keys by default, but Azure provides options to manage your own keys (customer managed keys) for certain Azure services. Understand encryption at rest in Azure: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/security/fundamentals/encryption-atrest#encryption-at-rest-in-microsoft-cloud-services How to configure customer managed encryption keys: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/storage/common/storage-encryption-keys-portal Encryption model and key management table: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/security/fundamentals/encryption-models Data at rest double encryption in Azure: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/security/fundamentals/double-encryption#data-at-rest n/a link 13
Azure_Security_Benchmark_v3.0 DP-5 Azure_Security_Benchmark_v3.0_DP-5 Microsoft cloud security benchmark DP-5 Data Protection Use customer-managed key option in data at rest encryption when required Shared **Security Principle:** If required for regulatory compliance, define the use case and service scope where customer-managed key option is needed. Enable and implement data at rest encryption using customer-managed key in services. **Azure Guidance:** Azure also provides encryption option using keys managed by yourself (customer-managed keys) for certain services. However, using customer-managed key option requires additional operational efforts to manage the key lifecycle. This may include encryption key generation, rotation, revoke and access control, etc. **Implementation and additional context:** Encryption model and key management table: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/security/fundamentals/encryption-models Services that support encryption using customer-managed key: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/security/fundamentals/encryption-models#supporting-services How to configure customer managed encryption keys in Azure Storage: https://docs.microsoft.com/azure/storage/common/storage-encryption-keys-portal n/a link 10
CIS_Azure_1.1.0 4.10 CIS_Azure_1.1.0_4.10 CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark recommendation 4.10 4 Database Services Ensure SQL server's TDE protector is encrypted with BYOK (Use your own key) Shared The customer is responsible for implementing this recommendation. TDE with BYOK support provides increased transparency and control over the TDE Protector, increased security with an HSM-backed external service, and promotion of separation of duties. With TDE, data is encrypted at rest with a symmetric key (called the database encryption key) stored in the database or data warehouse distribution. To protect this data encryption key (DEK) in the past, only a certificate that the Azure SQL Service managed could be used. Now, with BYOK support for TDE, the DEK can be protected with an asymmetric key that is stored in the Key Vault. Key Vault is a highly available and scalable cloud-based key store which offers central key management, leverages FIPS 140-2 Level 2 validated hardware security modules (HSMs), and allows separation of management of keys and data, for additional security. Based on business needs or criticality of data/databases hosted a SQL server, it is recommended that the TDE protector is encrypted by a key that is managed by the data owner (BYOK). link 6
CIS_Azure_1.3.0 4.5 CIS_Azure_1.3.0_4.5 CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark recommendation 4.5 4 Database Services Ensure SQL server's TDE protector is encrypted with Customer-managed key Shared The customer is responsible for implementing this recommendation. TDE with Customer-managed key support provides increased transparency and control over the TDE Protector, increased security with an HSM-backed external service, and promotion of separation of duties. With TDE, data is encrypted at rest with a symmetric key (called the database encryption key) stored in the database or data warehouse distribution. To protect this data encryption key (DEK) in the past, only a certificate that the Azure SQL Service managed could be used. Now, with Customer-managed key support for TDE, the DEK can be protected with an asymmetric key that is stored in the Key Vault. Key Vault is a highly available and scalable cloud-based key store which offers central key management, leverages FIPS 140-2 Level 2 validated hardware security modules (HSMs), and allows separation of management of keys and data, for additional security. Based on business needs or criticality of data/databases hosted a SQL server, it is recommended that the TDE protector is encrypted by a key that is managed by the data owner (Customer-managed key). link 6
CIS_Azure_1.4.0 4.6 CIS_Azure_1.4.0_4.6 CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark recommendation 4.6 4 Database Services Ensure SQL server's TDE protector is encrypted with Customer-managed key Shared The customer is responsible for implementing this recommendation. TDE with Customer-managed key support provides increased transparency and control over the TDE Protector, increased security with an HSM-backed external service, and promotion of separation of duties. With TDE, data is encrypted at rest with a symmetric key (called the database encryption key) stored in the database or data warehouse distribution. To protect this data encryption key (DEK) in the past, only a certificate that the Azure SQL Service managed could be used. Now, with Customer-managed key support for TDE, the DEK can be protected with an asymmetric key that is stored in the Key Vault. Key Vault is a highly available and scalable cloud-based key store which offers central key management, leverages FIPS 140-2 Level 2 validated hardware security modules (HSMs), and allows separation of management of keys and data, for additional security. Based on business needs or criticality of data/databases hosted a SQL server, it is recommended that the TDE protector is encrypted by a key that is managed by the data owner (Customer-managed key). link 6
CIS_Azure_2.0.0 4.1.3 CIS_Azure_2.0.0_4.1.3 CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark recommendation 4.1.3 4.1 Ensure SQL server's Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) protector is encrypted with Customer-managed key Shared Once TDE protector is encrypted with a Customer-managed key, it transfers entire responsibility of respective key management on to you, and hence you should be more careful about doing any operations on the particular key in order to keep data from corresponding SQL server and Databases hosted accessible. When deploying Customer Managed Keys, it is prudent to ensure that you also deploy an automated toolset for managing these keys (this should include discovery and key rotation), and Keys should be stored in an HSM or hardware backed keystore, such as Azure Key Vault. As far as toolsets go, check with your cryptographic key provider, as they may well provide one as an add-on to their service. Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) with Customer-managed key support provides increased transparency and control over the TDE Protector, increased security with an HSM-backed external service, and promotion of separation of duties. With TDE, data is encrypted at rest with a symmetric key (called the database encryption key) stored in the database or data warehouse distribution. To protect this data encryption key (DEK) in the past, only a certificate that the Azure SQL Service managed could be used. Now, with Customer-managed key support for TDE, the DEK can be protected with an asymmetric key that is stored in the Azure Key Vault. The Azure Key Vault is a highly available and scalable cloud-based key store which offers central key management, leverages FIPS 140-2 Level 2 validated hardware security modules (HSMs), and allows separation of management of keys and data for additional security. Based on business needs or criticality of data/databases hosted on a SQL server, it is recommended that the TDE protector is encrypted by a key that is managed by the data owner (Customer-managed key). Customer-managed key support for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) allows user control of TDE encryption keys and restricts who can access them and when. Azure Key Vault, Azure’s cloud-based external key management system, is the first key management service where TDE has integrated support for Customer-managed keys. With Customer-managed key support, the database encryption key is protected by an asymmetric key stored in the Key Vault. The asymmetric key is set at the server level and inherited by all databases under that server. link 6
CMMC_2.0_L2 SC.L2-3.13.10 CMMC_2.0_L2_SC.L2-3.13.10 404 not found n/a n/a 37
CMMC_L3 SC.3.177 CMMC_L3_SC.3.177 CMMC L3 SC.3.177 System and Communications Protection Employ FIPS-validated cryptography when used to protect the confidentiality of CUI. Shared Microsoft and the customer share responsibilities for implementing this requirement. Cryptography can be employed to support many security solutions including the protection of controlled unclassified information, the provision of digital signatures, and the enforcement of information separation when authorized individuals have the necessary clearances for such information but lack the necessary formal access approvals. Cryptography can also be used to support random number generation and hash generation. Cryptographic standards include FIPSvalidated cryptography and/or NSA-approved cryptography. link 26
FedRAMP_High_R4 SC-12 FedRAMP_High_R4_SC-12 FedRAMP High SC-12 System And Communications Protection Cryptographic Key Establishment And Management Shared n/a The organization establishes and manages cryptographic keys for required cryptography employed within the information system in accordance with [Assignment: organization-defined requirements for key generation, distribution, storage, access, and destruction]. Supplemental Guidance: Cryptographic key management and establishment can be performed using manual procedures or automated mechanisms with supporting manual procedures. Organizations define key management requirements in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, regulations, policies, standards, and guidance, specifying appropriate options, levels, and parameters. Organizations manage trust stores to ensure that only approved trust anchors are in such trust stores. This includes certificates with visibility external to organizational information systems and certificates related to the internal operations of systems. Related controls: SC-13, SC-17. References: NIST Special Publications 800-56, 800-57. link 40
FedRAMP_Moderate_R4 SC-12 FedRAMP_Moderate_R4_SC-12 FedRAMP Moderate SC-12 System And Communications Protection Cryptographic Key Establishment And Management Shared n/a The organization establishes and manages cryptographic keys for required cryptography employed within the information system in accordance with [Assignment: organization-defined requirements for key generation, distribution, storage, access, and destruction]. Supplemental Guidance: Cryptographic key management and establishment can be performed using manual procedures or automated mechanisms with supporting manual procedures. Organizations define key management requirements in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, regulations, policies, standards, and guidance, specifying appropriate options, levels, and parameters. Organizations manage trust stores to ensure that only approved trust anchors are in such trust stores. This includes certificates with visibility external to organizational information systems and certificates related to the internal operations of systems. Related controls: SC-13, SC-17. References: NIST Special Publications 800-56, 800-57. link 40
hipaa 0304.09o3Organizational.1-09.o hipaa-0304.09o3Organizational.1-09.o 0304.09o3Organizational.1-09.o 03 Portable Media Security 0304.09o3Organizational.1-09.o 09.07 Media Handling Shared n/a The organization restricts the use of writable removable media and personally-owned removable media in organizational systems. 8
NIST_SP_800-171_R2_3 .13.10 NIST_SP_800-171_R2_3.13.10 NIST SP 800-171 R2 3.13.10 System and Communications Protection Establish and manage cryptographic keys for cryptography employed in organizational systems. Shared Microsoft and the customer share responsibilities for implementing this requirement. Cryptographic key management and establishment can be performed using manual procedures or mechanisms supported by manual procedures. Organizations define key management requirements in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, policies, directives, regulations, and standards specifying appropriate options, levels, and parameters. [SP 800-56A] and [SP 800-57-1] provide guidance on cryptographic key management and key establishment. link 40
NIST_SP_800-53_R4 SC-12 NIST_SP_800-53_R4_SC-12 NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 4 SC-12 System And Communications Protection Cryptographic Key Establishment And Management Shared n/a The organization establishes and manages cryptographic keys for required cryptography employed within the information system in accordance with [Assignment: organization-defined requirements for key generation, distribution, storage, access, and destruction]. Supplemental Guidance: Cryptographic key management and establishment can be performed using manual procedures or automated mechanisms with supporting manual procedures. Organizations define key management requirements in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, regulations, policies, standards, and guidance, specifying appropriate options, levels, and parameters. Organizations manage trust stores to ensure that only approved trust anchors are in such trust stores. This includes certificates with visibility external to organizational information systems and certificates related to the internal operations of systems. Related controls: SC-13, SC-17. References: NIST Special Publications 800-56, 800-57. link 40
NIST_SP_800-53_R5 SC-12 NIST_SP_800-53_R5_SC-12 NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 5 SC-12 System and Communications Protection Cryptographic Key Establishment and Management Shared n/a Establish and manage cryptographic keys when cryptography is employed within the system in accordance with the following key management requirements: [Assignment: organization-defined requirements for key generation, distribution, storage, access, and destruction]. link 40
NZ_ISM_v3.5 CR-3 NZ_ISM_v3.5_CR-3 NZISM Security Benchmark CR-3 Cryptography 17.1.53 Reducing storage and physical transfer requirements Customer n/a When encryption is applied to media or media residing within IT equipment it provides an additional layer of defence. Whilst such measures do not reduce or alter the classification of the information itself, physical storage, handling and transfer requirements may be reduced to those of a lesser classification for the media or equipment (but not the data itself). link 12
NZISM_Security_Benchmark_v1.1 CR-3 NZISM_Security_Benchmark_v1.1_CR-3 NZISM Security Benchmark CR-3 Cryptography 17.1.46 Reducing storage and physical transfer requirements Customer If an agency wishes to use encryption to reduce the storage or physical transfer requirements for IT equipment or media that contains classified information, they SHOULD use: full disk encryption; or partial disk encryption where the access control will only allow writing to the encrypted partition holding the classified information. When encryption is applied to media or media residing within IT equipment it provides an additional layer of defence. Whilst such measures do not reduce or alter the classification of the information itself, physical storage, handling and transfer requirements may be reduced to those of a lesser classification for the media or equipment (but not the data itself). link 11
RBI_CSF_Banks_v2016 13.4 RBI_CSF_Banks_v2016_13.4 Advanced Real-Timethreat Defenceand Management Advanced Real-Timethreat Defenceand Management-13.4 n/a Consider implementingsecure web gateways with capability to deep scan network packets including secure (HTTPS, etc.) traffic passing through the web/internet gateway 43
RBI_CSF_Banks_v2016 21.1 RBI_CSF_Banks_v2016_21.1 Metrics Metrics-21.1 n/a Develop a comprehensive set of metrics that provide for prospective and retrospective measures, like key performance indicators and key risk indicators 15
RMiT_v1.0 10.19 RMiT_v1.0_10.19 RMiT 10.19 Cryptography Cryptography - 10.19 Shared n/a A financial institution must ensure cryptographic controls are based on the effective implementation of suitable cryptographic protocols. The protocols shall include secret and public cryptographic key protocols, both of which shall reflect a high degree of protection to the applicable secret or private cryptographic keys. The selection of such protocols must be based on recognised international standards and tested accordingly. Commensurate with the level of risk, secret cryptographic key and private-cryptographic key storage and encryption/decryption computation must be undertaken in a protected environment, supported by a hardware security module (HSM) or trusted execution environment (TEE). link 6
RMiT_v1.0 10.53 RMiT_v1.0_10.53 RMiT 10.53 Cloud Services Cloud Services - 10.53 Shared n/a A financial institution must implement appropriate safeguards on customer and counterparty information and proprietary data when using cloud services to protect against unauthorised disclosure and access. This shall include retaining ownership, control and management of all data pertaining to customer and counterparty information, proprietary data and services hosted on the cloud, including the relevant cryptographic keys management. link 14
SO .3 - Customer-Managed Keys SO.3 - Customer-Managed Keys 404 not found n/a n/a 12
SOC_2 CC6.1 SOC_2_CC6.1 SOC 2 Type 2 CC6.1 Logical and Physical Access Controls Logical access security software, infrastructure, and architectures Shared The customer is responsible for implementing this recommendation. The following points of focus, specifically related to all engagements using the trust services criteria, highlight important characteristics relating to this criterion: • Identifies and Manages the Inventory of Information Assets — The entity identifies, Page 29 TSP Ref. # TRUST SERVICES CRITERIA AND POINTS OF FOCUS inventories, classifies, and manages information assets. • Restricts Logical Access — Logical access to information assets, including hardware, data (at-rest, during processing, or in transmission), software, administrative authorities, mobile devices, output, and offline system components is restricted through the use of access control software and rule sets. • Identifies and Authenticates Users — Persons, infrastructure, and software are identified and authenticated prior to accessing information assets, whether locally or remotely. • Considers Network Segmentation — Network segmentation permits unrelated portions of the entity's information system to be isolated from each other. • Manages Points of Access — Points of access by outside entities and the types of data that flow through the points of access are identified, inventoried, and managed. The types of individuals and systems using each point of access are identified, documented, and managed. • Restricts Access to Information Assets — Combinations of data classification, separate data structures, port restrictions, access protocol restrictions, user identification, and digital certificates are used to establish access-control rules for information assets. • Manages Identification and Authentication — Identification and authentication requirements are established, documented, and managed for individuals and systems accessing entity information, infrastructure, and software. • Manages Credentials for Infrastructure and Software — New internal and external infrastructure and software are registered, authorized, and documented prior to being granted access credentials and implemented on the network or access point. Credentials are removed and access is disabled when access is no longer required or the infrastructure and software are no longer in use. • Uses Encryption to Protect Data — The entity uses encryption to supplement other measures used to protect data at rest, when such protections are deemed appropriate based on assessed risk. • Protects Encryption Keys — Processes are in place to protect encryption keys during generation, storage, use, and destruction 80
U.05.2 - Cryptographic measures U.05.2 - Cryptographic measures 404 not found n/a n/a 52
U.11.3 - Encrypted U.11.3 - Encrypted 404 not found n/a n/a 52
Initiatives usage
Initiative DisplayName Initiative Id Initiative Category State Type
[Deprecated]: Azure Security Benchmark v1 42a694ed-f65e-42b2-aa9e-8052e9740a92 Regulatory Compliance Deprecated BuiltIn
[Deprecated]: Azure Security Benchmark v2 bb522ac1-bc39-4957-b194-429bcd3bcb0b Regulatory Compliance Deprecated BuiltIn
[Preview]: CMMC 2.0 Level 2 4e50fd13-098b-3206-61d6-d1d78205cb45 Regulatory Compliance Preview BuiltIn
[Preview]: Control the use of Microsoft SQL in a Virtual Enclave 0fbe78a5-1722-4f1b-83a5-89c14151fa60 VirtualEnclaves Preview BuiltIn
[Preview]: Reserve Bank of India - IT Framework for Banks d0d5578d-cc08-2b22-31e3-f525374f235a Regulatory Compliance Preview BuiltIn
[Preview]: Sovereignty Baseline - Confidential Policies 03de05a4-c324-4ccd-882f-a814ea8ab9ea Regulatory Compliance Preview BuiltIn
CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark v1.1.0 1a5bb27d-173f-493e-9568-eb56638dde4d Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark v1.3.0 612b5213-9160-4969-8578-1518bd2a000c Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark v1.4.0 c3f5c4d9-9a1d-4a99-85c0-7f93e384d5c5 Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
CIS Microsoft Azure Foundations Benchmark v2.0.0 06f19060-9e68-4070-92ca-f15cc126059e Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
CMMC Level 3 b5629c75-5c77-4422-87b9-2509e680f8de Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
Deny or Audit resources without Encryption with a customer-managed key (CMK) Enforce-Encryption-CMK Encryption GA ALZ
FedRAMP High d5264498-16f4-418a-b659-fa7ef418175f Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
FedRAMP Moderate e95f5a9f-57ad-4d03-bb0b-b1d16db93693 Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
HITRUST/HIPAA a169a624-5599-4385-a696-c8d643089fab Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
Microsoft cloud security benchmark 1f3afdf9-d0c9-4c3d-847f-89da613e70a8 Security Center GA BuiltIn
New Zealand ISM Restricted d1a462af-7e6d-4901-98ac-61570b4ed22a Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
New Zealand ISM Restricted v3.5 93d2179e-3068-c82f-2428-d614ae836a04 Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
NIST SP 800-171 Rev. 2 03055927-78bd-4236-86c0-f36125a10dc9 Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 4 cf25b9c1-bd23-4eb6-bd2c-f4f3ac644a5f Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 5 179d1daa-458f-4e47-8086-2a68d0d6c38f Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
NL BIO Cloud Theme 6ce73208-883e-490f-a2ac-44aac3b3687f Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
RMIT Malaysia 97a6d4f1-3bed-4cf4-ac5b-0e444c0408d6 Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
SOC 2 Type 2 4054785f-702b-4a98-9215-009cbd58b141 Regulatory Compliance GA BuiltIn
History
Date/Time (UTC ymd) (i) Change type Change detail
2022-01-07 18:14:35 change Patch (2.0.0 > 2.0.1)
2021-12-06 22:17:57 change Major, old suffix: preview (1.0.0-preview > 2.0.0)
2021-08-13 17:07:49 add 0a370ff3-6cab-4e85-8995-295fd854c5b8
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